TheÂ Stop Online Piracy ActÂ (SOPA), also known asÂ H.R. 3261, is aÂ billÂ that was introduced in theÂ United States House of RepresentativesÂ on October 26, 2011, by RepresentativeÂ Lamar SmithÂ (R-TX) and a bipartisan group of 12 initial co-sponsors. The bill expands the ability of U.S. law enforcement and copyright holders to fight online trafficking in copyrightedÂ intellectual propertyÂ andÂ counterfeit goods.Â Now before theÂ House Judiciary Committee, it builds on the similarÂ PRO-IP ActÂ of 2008 and the corresponding Senate bill, theÂ PROTECT IP Act.
The originally proposed bill would allow theÂ U.S. Department of Justice, as well as copyright holders, to seek court orders against websites accused of enabling or facilitating copyright infringement. Depending on who requests the court orders, the actions could include barring online advertising networks and payment facilitators such asÂ PayPalÂ from doing business with the allegedly infringing website, barring search engines from linking to such sites, and requiring Internet service providers to block access to such sites. The bill would make unauthorizedÂ streamingÂ of copyrighted content a crime, with a maximum penalty of five years in prison for 10 pieces of music or movies within six months. The bill also gives immunity to Internet services that voluntarily take action against websites dedicated to infringement, while making liable for damages any copyright holder who knowingly misrepresents that a website is dedicated to infringement.
Proponents of the bill say it protects the intellectual property market and corresponding industry, jobs and revenue, and is necessary to bolster enforcement of copyright laws especially against foreign websites.Â They cite examples such as Google’s $500 million settlement with the Department of Justice for its role in a scheme to target U.S. consumers with ads to buy illegal prescription drugs from Canadian pharmacies. Opponents say that it infringes on First Amendment rights, is Internet censorship,Â will cripple the Internet,Â and will threaten whistle-blowing and other free speech.
The House Judiciary Committee held hearings on SOPA on November 16 and December 15, 2011. The Committee is scheduled to continue debate when Congress returns from its winter recess.